Yogsutras of Patanjali: Samadhipaad, Yogsutra 2.19


Patanjali details the forms of gunas,

Visheshaavisheshalingamaatraalingaani gunaparvaani



Dhyaan: dhyan

Vishesh: particular, specific

Avishesh: generic, non-specific

Lingamaatra: intellect or buddhi, mark alone

Alingaani: without marks, said of the un-manifest

Guna: the three gunas of satva, rajas and tamas

Parvaani: phases, forms

Vishesh, avishesh, lingmaatra and alinga are the various forms of gunas.

Vishesh – the five elements (earth, water, fire, air and ether), five sense organs (eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin), five motor-organs (hands, legs and sexual organ) and the mind are called vishesh.

Avishesh – the five objects of senses (light/sight, sounds, smell, taste and touch) along with the ego are called avishesh.

Lingmaatra – intellect or budhhi, which is at the root of the 22 elements listed above is called lingmaatra.

Alinga – the elemental or balanced state of three gunas, which gives rise to the intellect, which is described as avyakt or un-manifest is alinga.

The three gunas residing in the above four states are termed as drishya.

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TIW Bureau

TIW Bureau

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